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Wintertime RFO in the (a) NH and (b) SH. The scale in (a) and (b) is quadratic to allow easier comparison between hemispheres. The 95th percentile of M in wintertime in the (c) NH and (d) SH. Black boxes show the following regions used in composites in section 3, ordered from west to east, for the NH: the Norwegian Sea, the Kuroshio, the Bering Sea, the Gulf Stream, the Labrador Sea, and the North Atlantic; and for the SH: the Agulhas Current, the Indian polar front, the Indian subtropical front, the north Ross Sea, the north Bellingshausen Sea, and the Brazil Current.

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Marine cold air outbreaks (MCAOs) are high-impact weather events in which air masses of polar or cold continental origin are advected over relatively warm open ocean. The resulting instability can lead to strong boundary layer turbulence and surface heat loss from the ocean (Brümmer 1996), as well as severe weather such as polar lows and boundary layer fronts (Businger 1985; Carleton and Song 1997; Rasmussen and Turner 2003).

Kolstad (2011) used an MCAO index along with the dynamic tropopause pressure to define regions throughout the globe favorable for polar low development. The MCAO index generally limited where polar lows could form, with most SH polar lows forming in the Pacific sector. Monthly variability in the MCAO index largely determined the frequency of occurrence of polar lows.

Comparing Figs. 2b and 2d, we see that MCAOs occur about as frequently in the Indian Ocean sector of the Southern Ocean as they do in the Pacific sector, but they are weaker in the former than the latter. The local RFO maximum in the high-latitude Indian Ocean sector coincides with regions of maximum extratropical cyclone frequency (Simmonds et al. 2003). As these storms move poleward (Hoskins and Hodges 2005) they advect very cold air masses, often originating over sea ice, equatorward. In the Pacific sector, the Antarctic topography, with the Ross and Amundsen Seas and associated ice shelves, particularly the Ross Ice Shelf corridor (Parish and Bromwich 2007) and the very large area of sea ice over the Ross Sea, provides the most favorable conditions for equatorward advection of polar air masses.

As previously mentioned, Fig. 2 implies that some MCAOs are associated with advection of polar air masses over high-latitude oceans, while others involve the advection of continental or cold marine air over SST gradients associated with western boundary currents. This distinction applies more in the NH than in the SH. In the former, MCAO events appear to be mostly stationary or to travel eastward and die out over the open ocean. In the latter, an MCAO originating at high latitudes often travels northward and becomes a midlatitude event (e.g., see supplemental material).

Additionally, we required composited events to be in the same geographical region, as different geometries of surface temperature gradient lead to a different large-scale flow pattern most conducive to lower-tropospheric cold advection (this applies mainly in the NH high latitudes but was used globally). Composites were performed in six regions of both the Northern Hemisphere: the Bering Sea, the Norwegian Sea, the Labrador Sea, the Kuroshio, the Gulf Stream, and the North Atlantic; and the SH: the Indian polar front, the north Ross Sea, the north Bellingshausen Sea, the Indian subtropical front, the Brazil Current, and the Agulhas Current. The locations of these regions are shown in Fig. 2.

Install the updated versions of Synplify Pro ME and Identify ME R2020.09MSP1-1 (Windows) stand-alone software for Libero SoC Design Suite v2021.1 that removes the date dependency by downloading it from the Synplify Pro ME and Identify ME web page after August 30, 2021. When running Synthesis and Identify within Libero SoC Design Suite v2021.1, add a new Synthesis and Identify tool profile pointing to the synplify_pro.exe and identify_debugger.exe within the updated installation.

In this case, the polar vortex weakened and some parts of cold air flung south into our neck of the woods. The cold outbreak is in no way evidence against global warming, actually, it is potentially the result of melting ice in the Arctic.

The most common satellite imagery technologies, optical and radar imagery, are used for Earth Observation. SAR active remote sensing technology utilizes various radar wavelengths for different purposes. The imagery is affected also by polarisation and backscattering. Optical satellites have an onboard passive sensor that requires sunlight to work. Optical EO imagery looks similar to how human eye sees the Earth. Both SAR and optical imaging technologies have their advantages and optimal applications.

Active remote sensing systems operate in the visible and microwave parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. SAR measures microwave response from surface features, potentially by using multiple polarisations. This creates reliable imaging of both land and sea. Imaging can be used for vital decision-making at public and private sectors, where it helps to monitor sea ice, marine or land environments and events, and support acting on crises requiring humanitarian aid.

The scattered signal amplitude and polarization provide information about scattering properties and structure. Phase measurements of the return pulse are used in interferometry and other applications. In vegetation canopies penetration example, X-band radar, with wavelengths of around 3 cm, is scattered strongly by foliage, while L-band, with wavelengths of around 27 cm, is scattered more strongly by tree branches.

Mirror reflection occurs for smooth surfaces with a low amount of radiation returning to the sensor. In contrast, rough surface will cause for a bigger amount of radiation to backscatter. If solid targets, such as metal objects, are oriented towards the antenna, they will have a very strong return signal. Amplitude is recorded always, while advanced systems can also measure polarisation and return signal phase.

Imaging radars operate in one or more of the select polarisation modes. Radar system measurements can be single-polarised (HH or VV or HV or VH), dual-polarised (HH and HV, VV and VH, or HH and VV), or quadrature polarised (HH, VV, HV, and VH).

For polarimetric analysis, signal phase differences between the modes and signal magnitude are measured by polarimetric (quadrature polarised) radar and some dual-polarised systems. Orientation and shape of the object surface affect the polarisation of reflected microwave energy in varying degrees. The final appearance of the objects in the images is affected by the polarisation mode trough scattering intensity echo.

The acquired satellite imagery is first downlinked to a ground station and prepared for analysis. This stage can include steps such as lining up pixels, removing clouds and mist, polar reformatting (for SAR data), and so on, depending on the type and end use of the satellite data.

After 20 years of polar duties for BAS, she returned to her owners, Norwegian shipping company G C Rieber, in April 2019. The vessel will continue her polar service with new owners the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS).

Although solutions powered by AI are not widely used by the tourism industry, future use of this technology will be effective in delivering quality products and services. Expansion of AI promises a bright future for the aviation and travel industry. The right time is NOW. Are you ready to explore the realm of AI?

Clone the repository, or download the ZIP. Double-click the zip file to extract the files. Copy the binaries to the directory located at /usr/local/benchmarkOne/. Run./benchmarkOne. This will start Benchmark =t&url= 041b061a72

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